A great idea for the Swedish military and all NATO German made Leopard 2 Main Battle Tanks this new camouflage will make a big difference on the battle field of tomorrow. Multi-spectral camouflage is the use of counter-surveillance techniques to conceal objects from detection across several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum at the same time. While traditional military camouflage attempts to hide an object in the visible spectrum, multi-spectral camouflage also tries to simultaneously hide objects from detection methods such as infrared, radar, and millimetre-wave radar imaging.
Among animals, both insects such as the eyed hawk-moth, and vertebrates such as tree frogs possess camouflage that works in the infra-red as well as in the visible spectrum.
The English zoologist Hugh Cott, in his 1940 book Adaptive Coloration in Animals, wrote that some caterpillars such as the eyed hawk-moth Smerinthus ocellatus, and tree frogs such as the red-snouted treefrog Hyla coerulea, are coloured so as to blend with their backgrounds whether observed in visible light or in infra-red. Cott noted the importance of camouflage in the infra-red, given the ability of tactical reconnaissance to observe in this part of the spectrum:
Because such screens are effective against direct observation and ordinary photography, by no means does it follow that they will be hidden in the infra-red photograph. Comparison of aerial photographs taken simultaneously on panchromatic and infra-red plates will reveal much that before the advent of this new technique would have been adequately camouflaged...
—Hugh Cott, 1940.
A German-led NATO research project concluded in 2004 that while "the multispectral signatures of most military equipment can be significantly reduced by combinations of various camouflage materials", multi-spectral camouflage for individual soldiers remained lacking. The main problems identified were operational constraints such as mobility, weight, and the soldier's physiology.
Multi-spectral camouflage can be applied to individuals in the form of a ghillie suit, disguising the heat given off by the wearer's body, and to vehicles and buildings with either specialised paints or camouflage nets that reduce the amount of heat given off by an object, as well as altering the shape and size of its radar signature. The SAAB Barracuda Mobile Camouflage System provides a degree of concealment in the visible, thermal infrared, and radar parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, as does the Miranda Berberys-R multispectral camouflage system from Poland.
The Swedish Armed Forces (Swedish: Försvarsmakten) form the military forces of Sweden, tasked with defence of the country, as well as promoting Sweden's wider interests, supporting international peacekeeping efforts, and providing humanitarian aid.
It consists of: the Swedish Army, the Swedish Air Force and the Swedish Navy, with addition of a military reserve force, the Home Guard (Swedish: Hemvärnet). Since 1994, the first three service branches are organised within a unified government agency, headed by the Supreme Commander, while the Home Guard reports directly to the Supreme Commander. King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden is traditionally attributed as Honorary Commander-in-Chief à la suite.
The military history of Sweden includes several unions and wars with all of its neighbour states, including extended Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War at the times of the Swedish Empire during the 17th and early 18th centuries. Wars with Russia culminated in the Finnish War (1808-1809), with Sweden permanently losing Finland. During the World Wars, the Cold War and throughout the 20th century, Sweden maintained a national policy of non-alignment, while the Swedish Armed Forces strength was based upon the concepts of conscription. In 2010, peacetime conscription was abolished, replacing it with volunteer armed forces including the Home Guard – National Security Force until 2018.
Units from the Swedish Armed Forces are currently on deployment in several international operations either actively or as military observers, including Afghanistan as part of ISAF and in Kosovo. Moreover, Swedish Armed Forces contribute as the lead nation for an EU Battle Group approximately once every three years.
Main article: Military history of Sweden
The military history of Sweden includes several unions and wars with all of its neighbour states, including extended Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War at the times of the Swedish Empire during the 17th and early 18th centuries. Wars with Russia culminated in the Finnish War (1808-1809), with Sweden permanently losing Finland. During the World Wars, the Cold War and throughout the 20th century, Sweden maintained a national policy of non-alignment, while the Swedish Armed Forces strength was based upon the concepts of conscription.