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The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 «Триумф», Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as S-300PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau in the 1990s as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007.

The S-400 uses three different missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range 40N6, long range 48N6 and medium range 9M96 missile.

Development[edit]
The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s. The system was formally announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999, the first tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan which were reported successful. As a result of this, the S-400 was scheduled for deployment in the Russian army in 2001.[3]

In 2003 it first became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment, and in August two high-ranking military officials expressed concerns that the S-400 was being tested using 'obsolete' interceptors from the S-300P and concluded that it was not ready for production.[3]

The completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM interceptor missile.[4][5] Officially accepted for service in 2007.[6]

Structure[edit]
30K6E administration system: manages 8 divisions (battalions)[7][8][9]
55K6E command and control centre based on Ural-532301.
91N6E[10] Panoramic radar detection system (range of 600 km) with protection against jamming. Mounted on an MZKT-7930. 300 targets. Decimetric band (S).[11]
6 battalions of 98ZH6E Surface-to-air missile systems consisting of (an independent combat system for autonomous operation):[12] Each battalion can hit no more than 6 targets on their own.[13]+2 another battalions if they are within range 40 km.
92N6(or 2)E Multi-functional radar (range of 400 km). 100 targets.[14]
5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer (up to 12 launchers).
Surface-to-air missiles allowed by Russian Presidential decree: 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3, 48N6DM, 9M96E, 9M96E2 and the ultra - long range 40N6E.[15]
The S-400 utilises an active electronically scanned array (official government statement)[16]
Possible elements of the S-400 (98ZH6E):[12][17] 15I6ME – 98ZH6E with coverage of 30/60/90 km operating outside 30K6E coverage. 96L6E[18] – universal complex (all functions), detection range of 300 km. 40B6M – housing for 92N6E or 96L6E type radar. Anti – stealth: Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE. Orion[19] passive sensor (locator) for target designation on the air defense system (coordinates 1 out of 3), Avtobaza-M passive sensor (locator) for target designation on the air defense system (coordinates 2 out of 3)[20] and Orion+ Avtobaza=the exact location. 1RL220BE[12] classified information[21] (or outdated), older versions (supposedly) were used for interference/anti-jamming[22] (inside/within passive sensor (locator)). It is Possible to utilise the S-200D "Dubna" (SA-5c) missiles (400 km), as well as various radar systems of the S-300 (Air Defence versions (P family)) without the use of additional command and control centres.[23] The S-300 (SA-20A/SA-20B) type missiles can also be controlled and guided .[24] A-50/A-50U[7] aircraft early warning, command and control transfer target designation[25]

The 30К6Е control system can be integrated with the:[12]

S-400 Triumph 98ZH6E system;
S-300PMU2 (through the 83М6Е2 control system);
S-300PMU1 (through the 83М6Е control system);
Tor-M1 through the Ranzhir-M battery command post;
Pantsir-S1 through the lead battery vehicle;
Triumf kets – when carrying out additional tasks using the 30K6E administration system; reception of the route information from an additional integrated 92Н6Е radar system;

Radar type 96L6E/30K6E administration system, Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE. Optional integration with the 92H6E radar system enables communication between each battery with:

Baikal-E senior command posts and other similar types;
nearby 30К6Е, 83М6Е, and 83М6Е2 administration systems ;
Polyana-D4М1 command post;
Command post for Russian fighter aircraft.
For export to foreign customers, with the purpose of integrating existing customer air defence systems, additional work on improvement of the 30K6E administration system for information technology pairing with anti-kets is in progress.

Components[edit]
91N6E[26]
Maximum targeting range (detection radius is wider).

For a ballistic target (speed of 4800 m/s and a radar cross-section of 0.4 square meters): 230 km.
For a target with RCS of 4 square meters: 390 km.
For targeting of strategic - bomber sized types: 570 km.
96L6
ALL THE HIGH-RISE DETECTOR (TSBS)[27][28]

96L6E radar and equipment separately (100 meters), 96L6E2 export version has the capability to track a maximum 100 targets. In mountainous terrain the system is resistant to false returns or clutter . Replaces the

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